Microcontinuum field theories extend classical field theories to microscopic spaces and short time scales. This volume is concerned with the kinematics of microcontinua. It begins with a discussion of strain, stress tensors, balance laws, and constitutive equations, and then discusses applications of the fundamental ideas to the theory of elasticity. The ideas developed here are important in modeling the fluid or elastic properties of porous media, polymers, liquid crystals, slurries, and composite materials.
The term, 'Primer Fields' refers to electromagnetic structures in space that focus interstellar plasma in concentrated form onto our Sun. Without the Primer Fields the Earth would be in an Ice Age environment. We, ourselves, would likely not exist then. The fields are created by magnetic effects of flowing plasma acting on itself. A threshold must be exceeded for the fields to form. Below it, the fields cannot form. The Sun is powered at a lower level when the Primer Fields are not active. At the inactive state the solar activity is reduced to a type of cosmic default level with 70% less radiated energy. The phase shift starts an Ice Age. At the present rate of diminishment, the solar activity threshold may be reached in 30 years, or in the 2050s, most likely. That's when the interglacial period ends and the greatest Climate Change in recorded history, happens. With the primer system gone inactive, the climate on Earth will get 40 times colder than the Little Ice Age in the 1600s had been. Ice core evidence promise that. Without the needed preparations for human living in such an environment, 99% of humanity would die of starvation, both by the cold and by CO2 depletion as more of it becomes dissolved into the sea. With the fields being critical for our very existence, they have been explored in laboratory experiments. Numerous fields of evidence tell us that the next Ice Age is near. That's where the truth begins. Most of the evidence was discovered in the 1990s and thereafter. Some evidence is measured in ice cores; some is measured in space, by satellites. Some measurements are also made on the ground in terms of measurements of the Earth's magnetic-pole drift observed in northern Canada. All of this is seen combined with high-energy physics experiments at a leading national laboratory, and is also explored in the small in static experiments. Against the background of these widely diverse types of evidence that have been recently discovered, the historic Little Ice Age in the 1600s, takes on a new dimension as a yardstick for measuring the future that by this evidence promises to be up to 40-times colder than the Little Ice Age had been. It qualifies for the term, Absolute! The evidence poses a great challenge ahead. Are we ready to respond? The Ice Age phase shift in climate is a stark in differences as night and day, and similarly fast. In the Little Ice Age between 10% and up to 30% of the populations in Europe had perished by starvation. The last Big Ice Age was evidently vastly harsher. Only 1-10 million people emerged from it alive. That's all we had after 2 million years of development. We want to do far better this time around; and we can, with large-scale technological infrastructures for our food supply. But will we create them? Will we get the job done in the 30 years that we still have left before the Ice Age starts anew? Will we even consider it? And how certain are we that the phase shift to the next glaciation period will begin, as the evidence suggests, in the 2050s? We have no slack on this front. We have no slack on this front. Should we fail us on this absolute front, we would be committing suicide. So, what will the answer be? Will we move with the evidence? Or will we lay ourselves down to die by default? It takes an independent researcher to brake the taboos that have kept mainstream cosmology imprisoned, increasingly, during the past century, even while what is regarded as taboo is known to be wrong. The Illustrated Science series is intended to open the scene beyond the threshold of accepted taboos, to where the actual physical evidence speaks for itself. The scope of the existential challenge that the Ice Age brings with it, takes astrophysics out of the academic domain and places it into the foreground as one of the most-critical issues of our time. The big Climate Change events that have already worldwide effects are mere fringe effects in the flow of the ever-changing cosmic dynamics.
In 1974, Thomas Greenfield's challenge to the New Theory Movement changed for many the face of educational administration as a field of study. Since then, in a powerful series of papers, he has elaborated his critique, becoming along the way recognized as a leading thinker in contemporary theories of educational administration.
The incredible true story of how a teenager became the youngest person ever to build a working nuclear fusion reactor.
Bringing together the key ideas from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and powerful methodology from quantum field theory, this book captures the essence of nonequilibrium quantum field theory. Beginning with the foundational aspects of the theory, the book presents important concepts and useful techniques, discusses issues of basic interest, and shows how thermal field, linear response, kinetic theories and hydrodynamics emerge. It also illustrates how these concepts and methodology are applied to current research topics including nonequilibrium phase transitions, thermalization in relativistic heavy ion collisions, the nonequilibrium dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation, and the generation of structures from quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. Divided into five parts, with each part addressing a particular stage in the conceptual and technical development of the subject, this self-contained book is a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in particle physics, gravitation, cosmology, atomic-optical and condensed matter physics.